The gross characteristics of the photon were discovered in 2011 and reported by the author in reference . The theory of the photon is based upon the postulates that identical, small, spherical, elastic particles moving at an average speed over ten times the speed of light make up a gaseous ether which pervades the universe. All neutrinos, matter, photons—everything—is made of these tiny elastic particles, which we call brutinos. The photon is a string of brutinos uniformly distributed along a complete sine wave. The brutinos move slowly compared to the average speed of the background particles. Their speed, of course, is the speed of light, c, and their total mass times the square of their speed is the energy they transport. The particles making the sine wave do not undulate as the photon travels; the photon travels like a wire bent in the shape of a sine wave.
Since the publication of  we have made additional discoveries about the photon structure. The brutinos are encapsulated in a string of spheroidal wavespaces which have linear dimensions of 10-16 m. These wavespaces are links making up a sinuoidal chain the length of the photon. Also, we have additional insight into the mechanism by which the photon increases the orbital path of an electron in an atom.
 President of Basic Research Press and Retired Professor of Mechanical Engineering at Mississippi State University. Paper prepared June, 2015.