A Note on the Fundamental Particles of Physics

There are 42 fundamental particles of physics, counting the neutral kaons as four distinct particles. Eight of these particles are non-matter particles, which translate at a speed equal the speed of light, or greater than the speed of light. There are 34 matter particles.

The eight non-matter particles are the photon which travels at the speed of light, of course; the six neutrinos, the electron, the muon, the tauon, and their antineutrinos which travel at a speed very slightly greater than the speed of light; and brutinos which have a distribution of speeds whose average is slightly over ten times the speed of light.

The 34 matter particles are made up of one, or more, elementary matter particles where an elementary matter particle consists of a single orbiting neutrino. Four of the fundamental matter particles consist of a single elementary matter particle. They are the proton, the electron, and their antiparticles.

Six of the fundamental matter particles are the leptons and are made up of: one elementary matter particle (the electron and the positron); three equal mass elementary matter particles (the muon and the antimuon); and three other equal mass elementary matter particles (the tauon and the antitauon). The leptons are all charged and have a spin of 1/2.

Ten of the particles are the mesons, each of which consists of two counter-rotating equal mass particles to produce zero spin.

The remaining matter particles are the baryons. All of these except the proton are constructed of a proton and two or more elementary matter particles orbiting about the proton.

All matter particles are unstable except the ones constructed of a single elementary matter particle (i.e., the proton, electron, and their antiparticles).

The brutino is a spherical, smooth, elastic particle with a diameter of $10^{-35}$ m and a mass of $10^{-66}$ kg which makes up an ether gas, the neutrinos, and everything in the universe.

The neutrino is a self-consistent flow of the ether gas which is organized by a micropump (having a diameter of $10^{-25}$ m), is completely condensed (but only by one pump flow rate), develops a thrust of 1.43 meganewtons, and is propelled at the velocity $ v_r – v_m $, where $v_r$ is the RMS speed of the background ether gas and $v_m$ is the mean speed.

The photon consists of brutinos distributed evenly over a harmonic line which is one wavelength long. The brutinos are transported by the fine structure wavespaces which make up the fine structure of the electrostatic field. The wavespaces translate radially at the speed of light from the atom which emitted the photon. The photon is held together by, and transported by, the Coulomb fields of the emitting atom.

The neutrino is the heart of the matter. The neutrino, no matter where it is or what its surroundings are, always has ether particles flowing into it, condenses the particle gas, turns the gas to make it flow around the propagation vector producing an angular momentum of $\hbar/2$, turns the flow again so approximately half flows forward in a fine stream at velocity $v_r$, and turns the remainder to exit in a fine stream at velocity $v_m$. All matter is made up from the orbiting neutrinos with their spin of 1/2.

The basic single neutrino matter particles, the proton and the electron, are produced when a proton-sized neutrino collides with other neutrinos and gets thrown into a circular orbit. During this formation process, the proton induced flows form the electron-which counterbalances the proton (positive) Coulomb field with the negative electron Coulomb field. The proton circular orbit produces the angular momentum of $\hbar/2$, which is required since the orbiting neutrino is the proton. The requirement that the orbiting neutrino must produce an angular momentum of $\hbar/2$ and the fact that all neutrinos develop a thrust of 1.43 meganewtons means there is only one mass which will satisfy these requirements, and that is the mass of the proton. The proton is the maximum mass elementary matter particle since a larger mass would produce angular momentum greater than $\hbar/2$. (Remember that the orbiting neutrino has a translational velocity of $ v_r – v_m$, and all neutrinos develop a thrust of 1.43 meganewtons.) The fine stream output of the proton neutrino at velocity $v_r$ followed by the output at velocity $v_m$ carries away the mass absorbed by the neutrino. But, the output also forms the fine structure of the electrostatic field. This structure consists of three-dimensional spaces with all three dimensions equal the proton orbital radius ($10^{-16}$ m) which travels radially from the particle at the speed of light (very slightly less than $v_r – v_m$).

The electron, made during the formation of the proton, is a neutrino (1/1836.2 times the proton mass) orbiting at a radius 1/1836.2 times the proton radius. The electron, presumably, is the smallest elementary matter particle, with its orbital diameter four orders of magnitude less than the electron sonic sphere diameter.

The electron must have an inertial loop in order to control the thrust of 1.43 meganewtons, but it is also necessary that the neutrino, which retains its flow, must have an angular momentum of $\hbar/2$. This is accomplished by the electron neutrino following its inertia balancing path but this path is superimposed on a path producing the angular momentum of $\hbar/2$. But, there is still one more thing the electron neutrino must do and that is to take a third loop in its path which has the same period as the proton, and thus produce the Coulomb field. Polarity is produced by the electron consisting of an antineutrino and the proton consisting of a neutrino.


Electron Structure

Figure 1. Electron Structure

Figure 1 shows the paths of the electron. The neutrino making the electron is shown as the dark dot in the lower right of the figure. The smallest loop has a radius of $5.73 \times 10^{-20}$ m, and it is the loop which balances the large thrust (1.43 meganewtons). We call it the inertial loop. The next larger loop is labeled at the top right. Its radius is $8.97 \times 10^{-18} $ m and is assumed to progress around the largest loop at the velocity $\sqrt{\alpha}c$. This loop has the same period as the proton. The final loop is the angular momentum loop which progresses at the velocity $\alpha c$. Its radius is $ 2.63 \times 10^{-11}$ m, half the Bohr radius. The electron mass times this radius times the velocity $\alpha c$ is $ \hbar / 2 $. Incidentally, the proton similarly has the same three path requirements-but all the radii are the same.

All the unstable fundamental matter particles will have elementary matter particles (i.e., orbiting neutrinos) less massive than the proton and all of them will have at least two loops-the inertial loop and the angular momentum loop. The charged fundamental particles will all have at least one of its elementary matter particles with the electrostatic loop.

The neutron is made up by forcing the center of the electron path down so that it coincides with the proton center. During the compression process an electron-sized antineutrino is made and it bonds to the electron. The electron neutrino is far enough distant from the proton so that the electrostatic force is developed. This phenomenon balances the neutron positive charge. The presence of another proton which is bonded to the neutron proton by the strong force provides another positive charge which stabilizes the orbiting electron and makes the proton-neutron a stable particle.

There are five forces involved with the elementary particles. First, there is the 1.43 meganewton force which propels the neutrino. This is the force which produces the hydrogen atom and its gravitational field. Gravitation produces organization in the universe and is the ultimate source of all available energy.

The second largest force is the strong nuclear force. The strong nuclear force acts between two equal mass elementary matter particles, such as the protons in nucleons, when they are orbiting side-by-side, with the same rotary direction, and in-phase. The attractive force results because of the static pressure reduction produced by the gas inflow to the neutrinos. The closeness of the two particles is limited by the gas density increase as the ether flows into the neutrinos. The nuclear force is 267 Newtons.

When two equal mass elementary matter particles are rotating side-by-side in opposite directions a force still is generated and it can be attractive as well as repulsive. But its magnitude is many orders of magnitude less than the strong nuclear force (possibly 7 or 8 orders of magnitude less). Its range is on the order of the elementary matter particle orbital diameter. The flows of the ether gas into the neutrino are the origin of this weak nuclear force, of course.

The next force produced between two elementary matter particles is the electrostatic force. This force is much stronger than the weak nuclear force (by a factor of $10^5$ to $10^6 $) but weaker than the strong nuclear force (by the factor 1/137.1). The flows in the background ether gas produced by an orbiting neutrino are similar to the flows produced by a breathing sphere-except there is polarity produced by the twist of the orbiting-neutrino producing disturbance. This breathing sphere effect is not established until some distance away from the elementary matter particle. This breathing sphere with twist flow is the electrostatic field. Two elementary matter particles with like twist will repulse each other and with opposite twist will attract each other.

The fifth force is gravitation. When two electrostatic fields rotate about each other with a half amplitude equal the basic ether particle radius they produce a very small breathing sphere effect since the particle radius is so small. The breathing sphere effect is the gravitational field. A pair made up of two opposite charged elementary matter particles will interact with a distant similar pair to produce the gravitational force-which is less than the electromagnetic force by a factor of $10^37$.

Background on the structure of these particles can be found in Reference [1] as well as [2].

Copyright © 2017 by
Joseph M. Brown
Basic Research Press
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Starkville, MS 39759
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1. Brown, Joseph M. The Mechanical Theory of Everything.  978-0-9712944-9-3.  Basic Research Press. Starkville, MS. USA. 2016.
2. Brown, Joseph M. Synopsis and Further Developments of the Mechanical Theory of Everything. Basic Research Press. Starkville, MS. USA. 2017.