#### I. Introduction and Summary

My name is Joseph Milroy Brown (aka) Joe Brown. I was born on January 9, 1928 in the rural community of Gatewood near Fayetteville in southern West Virginia. I received two bachelor degrees in Mechanical Engineering from WVA University and Master and PhD degrees from Purdue with emphasis in Machine Design, Mechanics, and Mathematics. I worked in the Aerospace Industry for 20 years designing airplanes, missiles, space boosters, and satellites. I then taught mechanical engineering at Mississippi State University for 21 years. I am here to describe the unified theory of physical science presented in *The Mechanical Theory of Everything*.

I postulated that the universe is populated by an *ether* gas as required to transmit gravitational forces. The ether is a gas consisting of small elastic spheres moving at high velocities. The gas is very dense and very energetic. One cubic meter of the gas has enough energy to power the earth for millennia and the density is fifty trillion times as large as lead. How does nature obtain useful energy from this ether and how can we move so freely in such a dense ether?

It occurred to me that neutrinos, matter, and radiation (i.e., everything) might be made of these ether particles. Neutrinos are like microscopic, but powerful, tornadoes produced by random condensations of the ether gas.

The neutrinos usually rush around at a speed slightly greater than the speed of light. However, as a result of random collisions with other neutrinos, they can get knocked into circular orbits to produce matter. All matter consists of orbiting neutrinos. The energy then of matter is its mass times the square of the speed of light.

The circular motion of the neutrino making a matter particle produces a disturbance in the ether which is manifested as the electrostatic field. Two orbiting particles produce a disturbance which is the gravitational field.

Photons consist of ether particles lined up in a harmonic shape. They translate at the speed of light, of course. When photons impact matter significant phenomena occur. The mass gets larger, electron orbit times get longer, and matter gets shorter. Also, the mass added to accelerate a particle makes the particle undulate as it moves.

Photons emitted from distant stars *wear out* so that distant stars appear to be moving away from us—but they aren’t.

Neutrinos are continually made from the ether, hydrogen atoms are made from neutrinos continually, hydrogen makes stars, stars grow, large stars collapse atoms and make neutron stars, neutron stars continue to grow and they collapse the nuclear structure and then explode, and the explosion makes the dark mass, planets, etc.—the things that we see.

In the following discussion we essentially develop the properties of the ether gas. First we discovered the equation for the fine structure constant $\alpha$. The mechanism of the fine structure constant lead to the discovery of the velocity of the ether particles, $v_m$. We then discovered the mechanism of the strong nuclear force, which, with the known value of the velocity of the ether gas particles, gave us the background gas density $\rho$. Next, we discovered the mechanism of gravitation, which gave us the radius of the ether gas particle $r_b$. Finally, we know photons are dissipated as they translate. Knowing the measured rate of dissipation, we determined the mass of the basic ether particle, $m_b$. Discovering the unified theory of physics basically consisted of finding the constants of the ether gas. Along the way we discovered how the universe works.

#### II. The Ether

The ether is a dense gas of very small, elastic, smooth, spherical particles.

mean velocity = $3.51 \times 10^{9}$ m/s

number per unit volume = $1.46 \times 10^{83}$ particles/m^{2}

radius = $4.05 \times 10^{-35}$ m

mass = $2.89 \times 10^{-66}$ kg

The average travel distance between collisions is $2.35 \times 10^{-16}$ m (nuclear particle size). The density is $4.23 \times 10^{17}$ kg/m^{3}—which density is 50 trillion times the density of lead. The particle velocities, like every gas, have varying values—some very slow, some very fast, and many close to the average velocity of $3.51 \times 10^{9}$ meters per second. The energy of the particles in each cubic meter of space is

$E = \eta m v_r^2 = 1.46 \times 10^{83} \times 2.89 \times 10^{-66} \times (3.81 \times 10^{9} )^{2} = 6.12 \times 10^{36} kg \cdot m^{2} / s^{2}$

This would be enough energy to operate a billion billion automobiles for a million years.

The ether is characterized by two velocities: the average of the particle speeds, $v_m$; and the root mean square speed, $v_r$. For example, consider two particles moving parallel to each other, one at a velocity of 10 *fps* and the other at 20 *fps*.

$v_m = \frac{10+20}{2} = 15 $ fps

$v_r^2 = \frac{10^{2} + 20^{2}}{2} = \frac{100 + 400}{2} = \frac{500}{2} = 250$

$v_r = \sqrt{250} \approx 15.8 $ fps

Flow rates depend upon $v_m$ and forces depend upon $v_r$. Note that $v_r$ is always greater than $v_m$ except if the particles are moving at the same speed, then $v_r = v_m$. Incidentally, for the ether gas, $v_r / v_m = \sqrt{3 \pi / 8} = 1.085$.

We have listed the characteristics of the ether, which are:

- The average velocity of the gas particles
- The mass density of the gas
- The radius of the ether gas particles
- The mass of the ether particle

We will show you how we determined these constants, which, incidentally, are the complete set of the basic constants required for the unified theory of physics. First, though, we show you the basic laws of physics—which are the laws of classical (Newtonian) mechanics. These equations stem from the all-pervading ether and must be obeyed by all phenomena occurring in the universe at all places and all times.

#### III. Classical (Newtonian) Mechanics

We assume that not only the ether is made of these tiny gas particles but also everything else is made of these same particles. Thus, all the laws of Newtonian mechanics are obeyed for everything, at all times, and at all places. These laws are:

- The conservation of mass
- The conservation of linear momentum (in three directions)
- The conservation of angular momentum (in three directions)
- The conservation of energy.

In addition, since force is defined as the time rate of linear momentum imparted to a particle (or group of particles), the famous (Newtonian) equation

$F = ma$

results, where *m* is the impacted mass and *a* is the acceleration of the mass.

#### IV. The Fine Structure Constant

We begin with the fine structure constant, $\alpha$, which leads to the determination of the mean velocity of the ether particles. This constant first appeared in physics from the orbital analysis of the simplest hydrogen atom ^{1}H and with the electron in its lowest orbit. We show the proton and electron in the hydrogen atom.

**Hydrogen Atom**

Balancing the electrostatic force with the centrifugal force gives

$ \frac{e^2}{r^2} = \frac{mv^2}{r} $

Further, the angular momentum, $\hbar$, of the electron is

$ \hbar = mvr$

Combining these equations gives

$ v = \frac{e^2}{\hbar} $

where $\hbar$ is Planck’s constant and *e* is the basic electrostatic charge. Dividing both sides by *c* gives the electron velocity in speed of light units—which is the fine structure constant. The value of the fine structure constant

$ \alpha = \frac{v}{c} = \frac{e^2}{\hbar c} $

has been determined to a much higher accuracy than its constituents $ e $ and $ \hbar $. Incidentally the value $ c $ is exact. The value of $ \alpha $ is

$ \alpha = 7.29735256 \times 10^{-3} = \frac{1}{137.0359991} $

Physicists generally regard this constant as a fundamental constant not derivable from more basic concepts. Also they do not know the physical model which it characterizes. We show the fine structure consists of flows produced in the ether by the orbiting neutrino making a charged particle and then we show the formula for $ \alpha $ in terms of the basic constants of the ether gas.

We noticed that the parameters $ v_r $ and $ v_m $ arranged as shown here

$ \alpha \approx \left ( \frac{v_r – v_m}{v_m} \right )^2 = \left ( \frac{v_r}{v_m} – 1 \right )^2 = \left ( \sqrt{\frac{3 \pi}{8}} – 1 \right )^2 = \frac{1}{137.1} $

which represented $\alpha$ to one part in 1000. Dr. Darell Harmon, one of our coworkers, noted if we used the mass center of the electron-proton system as the orbital center in the orbital analysis then

$ \alpha \approx \left ( \frac{v_r – v_m}{v_m} \right )^2 \left ( 1 + \frac{m_e}{m_p} \right ) = \frac{1}{137.106} $

which represents $ \alpha $ to one part in 70,000. In this expression $ m_e $ is the electron mass and $ m_p $ is the proton mass.

We later discovered that $ v_r – v_m $ is very close to the speed of light, it is slightly greater than the velocity of light. If the speed of light were $ 0.999720744 \times (v_r – v_m ) $ then we have

$ \alpha = (0.999720744)^2 \left ( \frac{v_r – v_m}{v_m} \right )^2 \left ( 1 + \frac{m_e}{m_p} \right )^2 = \frac{1}{137.0359991} $

Thus, we would have the fine structure formula as given above. We expect it will take a lot of research to determine the constant 0.999720744, even though we know its cause.

#### V. Neutrinos

How does nature get energy from the (highly energetic) ether gas? This problem is similar to trying to obtain energy from a tank full of gas at atmospheric conditions. We discovered a mechanism for extraction which depends upon the ether long mean free path ($ \ell / d = 10^{18} $). Incidentally, $ \ell / d = 100 $ for standard air. This $\ell / d$ is too large for our mechanism to function. The extraction device will not function with standard air. The extraction mechanism acts like a microrocket pump. The pump has the diameter of a proton. The pump sucks ether gas from the background, translates at a velocity $ v_r – v_m $, expels a fine stream of particles forward at velocity $v_r$ and a fine stream aft at $v_m$, and develops a thrust of 1.4 million Newtons. The neutrino consists of the microrocket pump and the associated ether gas flows.

In order to produce a condensation of the ether, it is obvious that a pump must be at the center of the condensation since a vacuum must be formed to *suck* particles into a condensation. We noticed that if particles were taken from the background, aligned all to go in the same direction without changing their speed, their flow velocity would be $v_m$, the background mean speed. Their energy would be proportional to the square of their RMS velocity, $v_r$. If the particles were squeezed together without changing their energy, their velocities obviously would all be the same (since they are all touching each other). Their energy then is $ Nmv_2^2$, where $N$ is the number of particles, $m$ is their mass, and $v_2$ is the velocity of the solid group. The energy before was $Nmv_r^2$. Thus, since the energies are the same, $v_2$ must be $v_r$ and $v_r = \sqrt{3 \pi / 8} v_m$. Thus, squeezing the particles to make them solid required that the flow velocity must increase from $v_m$ to $1.08 v_m$, an 8% increase. We will soon show you that this is the mechanism that nature employs to produce condensations—the matter we see, photons, all of our usable energy, and all our observables.

The above phenomenon is part of the microrocket pump which is at the center of our most basic organization of the ether—i.e., the neutrino. The microrocket pump works as shown below.

A flow of ether particles aligned parallel to each other, some going forward the rest going aft are fed into the *core* of this neutrino as shown here.

**Neutrino Core and Particles Feeding Core**

The inflow of particles are coming in radially all around the periphery of the cylindrical core. As they squeeze into the core they produce a solid on only one end of the core. The solid moves away at a higher velocity than those particles which aren’t solid so a vacuum is produced resulting in the inflow. Below we show just the core and its velocities.

**Core Particle Flows**

Particles flow out the back at velocity $v_m$ and out the front at $v_r$ ($1.08 v_m$). The solid semi-solid interface translates at the velocity $ v_r – v_m $, but the particles flow at velocities $v_m$ and $v_r$. The interface translates because of the particles flowing into the sides of the core. In order to balance linear momentum in the direction of flow, the aft mass flow rate is greater than in the forward direction. The diameter d of the pump determines the flow rate $ \dot m $ into the core. Incidentally, note that we have discovered a relation between the ether background velocities and the speed of light, i.e.,

$ c \approx v_r – v_m $

Knowing that $ v_r/v_m = \sqrt{3 \pi / 8 }$ gives us the value of the average velocity of the background particles, i.e.,

$ v_m = \frac{c}{\sqrt{3 \pi / 8} – 1} = 3.51 \times 10^9 $ m/s

This is the first basic constant of the background gas which we have discovered.

The size of the neutrino is characterized by the core radius, where the inflow speed must reach $v_m$, and by the sonic sphere radius where the inflow speed reaches $0.7v_m$. The space between the *core sphere* and the *sonic surface* is the *compression chamber*. See the following figure. Given $r_c$ we can calculate $r_\eta$, the core radius. The core surface area is linearly dependent on $\dot m$, the mass flow rate. Nature can randomly make cores which produce various flow rates. The flow rate which produces condensation falls between the following two values:

**Core and Compression Chamber of a Neutrino Coming out of the Paper**

If $\dot m$ is too small then the inflow will consist of many particles which will reach the opposite side of the sonic sphere and disrupt their flow. If it is too large, particles won’t get fed into the core because with a short MFP (mean free path) relative to $r_c$, the particles will bunch up at the entry and will not reach the core in significant numbers.

In the following three figures we show configurations of short MFP, long MFP, and a MFP equal to the radius of the sonic sphere.

If $ \dot m $ is large then the flows would appear as below. In this case particles going toward the *hole* meet particles coming in the opposite direction.

**Particle Mean Free Paths for $ r_c = 10^{-14} $ m. Short MFP.**

The figure below shows a long mean free path compared to $r_c$. Particles entering one side of the sphere will not be deterred from reaching the opposite side and this will disrupt the inflow.

**Particle Mean Free Path for $r_c = 10^{-16}$ m. Long MFP.**

The figure below shows the particle mean free paths for $r_c = 10^{-15}$ m.

**Particle Mean Free Paths for $r_c = 10^{-15}$ m. Medium MFP.**

Particles inside the outer sphere are very unlikely to intercept particles coming from the opposite direction and will enter the center sphere and be pumped out in two very fine streams. As this occurs, particles become more organized toward flowing into the inner sphere. Their thermal velocities will be reduced since the inflowing particles will meet less and less particles coming form the opposite direction.

If no particles from the opposite side reach the opposite side, then the incoming particles are not impeded in their inflow. They freely flow inward and while the radius decreases they easily compress themselves as they head for the *hole*, i.e., the core volume at the center of the sonic sphere. As a result of selecting the precise values of $ \dot m $ (i.e., the strength of the pump) the inflow becomes solid just before reaching the core. This results in an optimum value of $ \dot m $ which permits the input to become solidified. (This is the reason that the angular momentum of all neutrinos is the same. The sonic radius and the mass inflow rate for all neutrinos is the same.)

As the particles begin to solidify, the radial pressure increases and causes the particles to begin aligning to be parallel to the translating velocity of the core. Axial linear momentum conservation will generally cause the particles entering the back half of the sonic sphere to scatter aft and those entering the forward half of the sonic sphere to scatter forward. This accounts for the particles *feeding the core*. When the particles reach the core, they are pressed into the core, they flow out a very fine stream ($10^{-24}$ m diameter) forward at velocity $v_r$ and aft at velocity $v_m$. The assembly then translates at the velocity $v_r – v_m $.

The neutrino, from the outside appears as below.

**The Neutrino, the Source of All Usable Energy**

This structure is the most fundamental organized form of the background ether gas. All other organization observed in the universe is produced by this single basic structure.

The neutrino actually is a family of six different particles. There are three with right-hand twist (neutrinos) and three with left-hand twist (anti-neutrinos). The three neutrino pairs are the electron neutrino, the smallest; the muon neutrino, intermediate energy; and the tauon, the largest.

The angular momentum of all neutrinos is the same. Its value is Planck’s constant divided by 2, i.e., $ \hbar / 2$ (where $ \hbar = 1.05 \times 10^{-34} kg \cdot m^2 /s $ ) and is due to redirecting the flow through the neutrino. Neutrino core sizes vary but their angular momentum is negligible compared to that due to redirecting the flow.

A massive neutrino, having the mass of a proton, as a result of random collisions from the *sea* of neutrinos made from the ether gas, occasionally gets knocked into a circular orbit. The axial thrust which was propelling the neutrino in its translatory path becomes directed normal to the neutrino path and balances the *centrifugal force* of the neutrino as it takes its circular path. The neutrino still retains its tangential velocity of $v_r – v_m$. This orbiting neutrino is a proton.

The angular momentum of the proton is its mass $m_p$ times its orbital radius $r_p$, times its velocity $c$. Further, it has the same value as the neutrino from which it was made. Thus,

$ \frac{\hbar}{2} = m_p r_p c $

There is only one mass of neutrino which will balance the neutrino thrust and produce the angular momentum of the neutrino. Thus, knowing the proton mass, we know the proton’s orbital radius $r_p$. Its value is $1.05 \times 10^{-16}$ m. We also know the neutrino thrust, T.

$ T = \frac{m_p c^2}{r_p} = \frac{(1.67 \times 10^{-27})(3 \times 10^8)^2}{1.05 \times 10^{-16}} = 1.43 \times 10^6 $ Newtons

Two adjacent protons attract each other by the strong nuclear force. Two protons are shown below.

Gas flowing between the two protons produces a reduced pressure. The integral of this negative pressure over the plane AA is the strong nuclear force. Force is density times velocity squared. Knowing the measured force and knowing the velocity $\approx v_m$ gives the ether density $ \rho $, i.e.,

$ F = ( \frac{1}{3} ) \rho v_m^2 $

Thus, we determined the background (ether) gas mass density

$ \rho = 4.23 \times 10^{17} kg/m^2 $

We now have the background velocity and density.

Because of its circulating neutrino the proton disturbs the background ether, and produces a motion at a distance similar to a breathing sphere. Experiments with two identical breathing spheres immersed in water produced an inverse square force. The force was attractive when the spheres were in-phase and repulsive when out-of-phase. Analyses have shown that the proton motions produce inverse square repulsive forces for proton-proton interactions and attractive for proton-electron interactions. Protons are made of right-hand neutrinos and electrons are made of left-hand neutrinos – which accounts for the polarity of charge interaction. The electrostatic force is proportional to the square of the proton orbital radius squared $10^{-16} \times 10^{-16} = 10^{-32} $.

The gravitational field is produced by the residual flow resulting from the electron and proton orbiting with respect to each other. Their flows completely balance each other except that the two fields oscillate about each other with an amplitude equal the ether particle radius. The gravitational force is proportional to the square of this oscillating distance $(4 \times 10^{-35} )(4 \times 10^{-35} ) \approx 10^{-71}$ . The ratio of this electrostatic force to the gravitational force is

$ \frac{F_e}{F_g} = \frac{10^{-32}}{10^{-71}} = 10^{39} $

This is the answer to the unified field theory problem which Einstein posed, worked on, but never solved.

Note now that we have determined three of the four fundamental constants: velocity, density, and particle radius. We will soon obtain the particle mass.

#### VI. The Fine Structure of the Electrostatic Field

The output from the neutrino, at some distance from the proton, consists of a radial outflow at velocity $v_r$ followed by an inflow at velocity $v_m$. This produces a wave which advances radially at a velocity $ v_r – v_m$. The half amplitude of the wave is the same as the orbital radius of the proton, i.e., $10^{-16} $ m. Since the cause of the oscillation is produced by the orbiting proton translating at velocity $v_r – v_m$ the radial wave has a variation in the tangential direction which has a tangential length of $10^{-16}$ m also. The result of both motions produces a three dimensional wave which has the three dimensions $10^{-16}$ m each. The figure shows these waves. We call these structures *wavespaces*.

**Fine Structure of the Proton Electrostatic Field**

The wavespaces continually carry the energy away from the neutrino which is continually brought in by the neutrino. In addition, if an atom has an electron at one orbital radius and it drops to a lower orbit energy will be emitted. This energy will be due to basic ether particles moving at velocities $v_r – v_m$. These particles will be carried away from the atom by the wavespaces moving at velocity $c$, which is slightly less than $v_r – v_m$.

Now, if the delay time as the ether particles flow through the neutrino causes $c$ to be $0.99986432 \left ( v_r – v_m \right ) $ then the formula for $\alpha$ will be

$ left [ 0.999720744 \times \frac{v_r – v_m}{v_m} \right ]^2 = \frac{\alpha}{\left ( 1 + \frac{m_e}{m_p} \right)^2} $

We guess that it will be difficult to determine the constant 0.99984322.

#### VII. Matter in Motion

Now we answer the question of how we can move an arm freely in the background which is 50 trillion times as dense as lead. When a photon impacts a proton part of its mass is captured and part scattered by the proton. The momentum imparted causes the neutrino to change its direction, but not its speed, and the proton neutrino takes a plane spiral path. The impact by a single ether particle would cause the proton to change from a circular orbit to a plane spiral. Thus, we move unimpeded by the background.

As a result of impacting matter with photons, the mass increases by the formula $ m_v = m_0 / \sqrt{1 – (v/c)^2}$, the time for an orbit increases by the factor $T_v = T_0 / \sqrt{1-(v/c)^2}$, and if the motion of the neutrino is viewed from a frame moving with the proton then the orbit is an ellipse with a minor diameter $d_v = d_0 \sqrt{1-(v/c)^2}$ . Thus, matter in motion is shorter than matter at rest by the factor $\sqrt{1 – (v/c)^2}$. These equations are identical to the Einstein combined space-time special relativity equations. Both systems have been tested innumerable times in the century since Einstein evolved the equations. The Newtonian derivation is simpler and gives the same answer!

Another interesting phenomenon occurs when matter is accelerated. The added mass is captured and causes the matter to rotate about the captured mass and matter particle mass center of gravity as the particle translates. This phenomenon gives the wave property to moving matter. The mass is captured at a radius such that the angular momentum is $h$, Planck’s constant. Thus, the particle wave length $\lambda$ is

$ \lambda = \frac{h}{mv} $

This is the famous wavelength formula hypothesized by deBroglie. The dynamics of the motion then is obtained by balancing the centrifugal force against the centripetal forces of the captured mass and the matter particle. The resulting equation, using $F = ma$ (i.e., classical mechanics), is the Schrödinger equation. Incidentally, the oscillation produces the magnetic field.

#### VIII. The Non-Expanding Universe

Did you ever see a twirling skater move her arms and legs closer to her body and notice her angular velocity increase? This is because angular momentum $mrv$ is conserved. If $r$ decreases, $v$ increases. A *lowly* atom and its photon obey this law. An atom emits a photon and it races away from the atom at the speed of light (of course). We show an atom and its photon at two different times.

The angular momentum at time $t_1$,

$ m_1 r_1 c $

At time $t_2$ the angular momentum is

$ \left ( m_1 – \delta m_1 \right) \left ( r_1 + \delta r_1 \right ) c $

From the above we see that the photon mass must decrease in one wave length of travel. By knowing how fast the photon deteriorates, we determined the mass removed each cycle. We assumed the mass was the mass of one ether particle. The estimated mass was $10^{-68}$ kg, which is a hundredth the mass we obtained using another method. We attributed the discrepancy to the inaccuracy in the measurement of the Hubble constant, which is involved in the alternate theory of the photon’s demise.

The conventional explanation of the photon’s demise is that all distant stars are moving away from us with the result being longer wavelengths (lower pitch) photons reaching the earth, much as a train whistle has a lower pitch when running away from us. This decay is measured by the Hubble constant *H*. Its value is subject to a great degree of uncertainty.

We now have the four basic constants of the universe:

- particle velocity,
- ether density,
- particle radius, and
- particle mass.

#### IX. Origin of Dark Mass, Small Neutron Stars, Hydrogen Stars, Planets, Moons, Asteroids, Comets, and Space Dust.

- Neutrinos are made randomly from the ether.
- Hydrogen is made randomly from neutrinos.
- Hydrogen has a gravitational field so hydrogen congregates.
- Hydrogen continually congregates to make hydrogen stars.
- Hydrogen stars grow and make larger atom stars.
- Larger stars grow and gravity overcomes electronic structure—makes neutron stars.
- Neutron stars grow until they are light year-sized. At this size gravitational forces are great enough to collapse the orbit of nucleons. This collapse causes the neutrinos making matter to become free neutrinos again. The free neutrinos cause the giant neutron star to explode. Our exploding neutron star could have been many observable universe diameters from us—instead of within our observable universe.
- Explosion makes small neutron stars, dark mass, other stars, planets, moons, asteroids, comets, and space dust.

#### X. Conclusions

The contents of the universe consist entirely of very small elastic spheres. All the laws of physics stem from classical (Newtonian) mechanics. The world is a mechanical world. Einstein’s theory of relativity and gravitation and the Schrödinger equation which spawned modern physics are classical mechanic concepts—modern physics is a subset of classical (Newtonian) physics. The universe is not expanding. The universe is a steady state universe in which neutrinos continually make atoms and stars and large stars explode and return to smaller entities, and even some more neutrinos.

Bibliography

Brown, Joseph M., *The Mechanical Theory of Everything*. ISBN: 978-0971294493. Basic Research Press. Starkville, MS. 2015.