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The Fundamental Particles of Physics

There are four major categories of fundamental particles of physics:

  1. Brutinos
  2. Neutrinos
  3. Matter
  4. Photons

Brutinos are small, spherical, elastic particles which mke up an ether gas which, in turn, makes up everything in the universe. Neutrinos are nuclear sized particles which are self-organizing and continually organize brutinos from the ether into two fine opposite streams of brutinos. Neutrinos usually take linear paths at a speed slightly greater than the speed of light, but some are forced into circular paths, which makes matter. The basic unit of matter is a single neutrino orbiting in a closed path. We call this an elementary matter particle. Matter interacts with other matter by expelling, or absorbing, a closed elliptic ring of brutinos which are moving at the speed of light and which are stored in wavespaces of the fine structure of matter. When not in the elliptic ring, i.e., during transmission, the brutinos are spread uniformly over one wave length of a harmonic wave as they transport at the speed of light. This harmonic wave is a photon.

The largest elementary matter particle is a proton and the smallest is an electron. They are the only stable matter particles. All other matter particles consist of two or more elementary particles. The multiple particle leptons (the muon and the tauon) consists of three elementary matter particles, each one of which has spin 1/2. The mesons consist of two spin 1/2 particles with opposing rotation to produce zero spin. The multiparticle baryons each have one or more spin 1/2 particles orbiting a proton.

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A Note on the Fundamental Particles of Physics

There are 42 fundamental particles of physics, counting the neutral kaons as four distinct particles. Eight of these particles are non-matter particles, which translate at a speed equal the speed of light, or greater than the speed of light. There are 34 matter particles.

The eight non-matter particles are the photon which travels at the speed of light, of course; the six neutrinos, the electron, the muon, the tauon, and their antineutrinos which travel at a speed very slightly greater than the speed of light; and brutinos which have a distribution of speeds whose average is slightly over ten times the speed of light.

The 34 matter particles are made up of one, or more, elementary matter particles where an elementary matter particle consists of a single orbiting neutrino. Four of the fundamental matter particles consist of a single elementary matter particle. They are the proton, the electron, and their antiparticles.

Six of the fundamental matter particles are the leptons and are made up of: one elementary matter particle (the electron and the positron); three equal mass elementary matter particles (the muon and the antimuon); and three other equal mass elementary matter particles (the tauon and the antitauon). The leptons are all charged and have a spin of 1/2.

Ten of the particles are the mesons, each of which consists of two counter-rotating equal mass particles to produce zero spin.

The remaining matter particles are the baryons. All of these except the proton are constructed of a proton and two or more elementary matter particles orbiting about the proton.

All matter particles are unstable except the ones constructed of a single elementary matter particle (i.e., the proton, electron, and their antiparticles).

The brutino is a spherical, smooth, elastic particle with a diameter of $10^{-35}$ m and a mass of $10^{-66}$ kg which makes up an ether gas, the neutrinos, and everything in the universe.

The neutrino is a self-consistent flow of the ether gas which is organized by a micropump (having a diameter of $10^{-25}$ m), is completely condensed (but only by one pump flow rate), develops a thrust of 1.43 meganewtons, and is propelled at the velocity $ v_r – v_m $, where $v_r$ is the RMS speed of the background ether gas and $v_m$ is the mean speed.

The photon consists of brutinos distributed evenly over a harmonic line which is one wavelength long. The brutinos are transported by the fine structure wavespaces which make up the fine structure of the electrostatic field. The wavespaces translate radially at the speed of light from the atom which emitted the photon. The photon is held together by, and transported by, the Coulomb fields of the emitting atom.

The neutrino is the heart of the matter. The neutrino, no matter where it is or what its surroundings are, always has ether particles flowing into it, condenses the particle gas, turns the gas to make it flow around the propagation vector producing an angular momentum of $\hbar/2$, turns the flow again so approximately half flows forward in a fine stream at velocity $v_r$, and turns the remainder to exit in a fine stream at velocity $v_m$. All matter is made up from the orbiting neutrinos with their spin of 1/2.

The basic single neutrino matter particles, the proton and the electron, are produced when a proton-sized neutrino collides with other neutrinos and gets thrown into a circular orbit. During this formation process, the proton induced flows form the electron-which counterbalances the proton (positive) Coulomb field with the negative electron Coulomb field. The proton circular orbit produces the angular momentum of $\hbar/2$, which is required since the orbiting neutrino is the proton. The requirement that the orbiting neutrino must produce an angular momentum of $\hbar/2$ and the fact that all neutrinos develop a thrust of 1.43 meganewtons means there is only one mass which will satisfy these requirements, and that is the mass of the proton. The proton is the maximum mass elementary matter particle since a larger mass would produce angular momentum greater than $\hbar/2$. (Remember that the orbiting neutrino has a translational velocity of $ v_r – v_m$, and all neutrinos develop a thrust of 1.43 meganewtons.) The fine stream output of the proton neutrino at velocity $v_r$ followed by the output at velocity $v_m$ carries away the mass absorbed by the neutrino. But, the output also forms the fine structure of the electrostatic field. This structure consists of three-dimensional spaces with all three dimensions equal the proton orbital radius ($10^{-16}$ m) which travels radially from the particle at the speed of light (very slightly less than $v_r – v_m$).

The electron, made during the formation of the proton, is a neutrino (1/1836.2 times the proton mass) orbiting at a radius 1/1836.2 times the proton radius. The electron, presumably, is the smallest elementary matter particle, with its orbital diameter four orders of magnitude less than the electron sonic sphere diameter.

The electron must have an inertial loop in order to control the thrust of 1.43 meganewtons, but it is also necessary that the neutrino, which retains its flow, must have an angular momentum of $\hbar/2$. This is accomplished by the electron neutrino following its inertia balancing path but this path is superimposed on a path producing the angular momentum of $\hbar/2$. But, there is still one more thing the electron neutrino must do and that is to take a third loop in its path which has the same period as the proton, and thus produce the Coulomb field. Polarity is produced by the electron consisting of an antineutrino and the proton consisting of a neutrino.

 

Electron Structure

Figure 1. Electron Structure

Figure 1 shows the paths of the electron. The neutrino making the electron is shown as the dark dot in the lower right of the figure. The smallest loop has a radius of $5.73 \times 10^{-20}$ m, and it is the loop which balances the large thrust (1.43 meganewtons). We call it the inertial loop. The next larger loop is labeled at the top right. Its radius is $8.97 \times 10^{-18} $ m and is assumed to progress around the largest loop at the velocity $\sqrt{\alpha}c$. This loop has the same period as the proton. The final loop is the angular momentum loop which progresses at the velocity $\alpha c$. Its radius is $ 2.63 \times 10^{-11}$ m, half the Bohr radius. The electron mass times this radius times the velocity $\alpha c$ is $ \hbar / 2 $. Incidentally, the proton similarly has the same three path requirements-but all the radii are the same.

All the unstable fundamental matter particles will have elementary matter particles (i.e., orbiting neutrinos) less massive than the proton and all of them will have at least two loops-the inertial loop and the angular momentum loop. The charged fundamental particles will all have at least one of its elementary matter particles with the electrostatic loop.

The neutron is made up by forcing the center of the electron path down so that it coincides with the proton center. During the compression process an electron-sized antineutrino is made and it bonds to the electron. The electron neutrino is far enough distant from the proton so that the electrostatic force is developed. This phenomenon balances the neutron positive charge. The presence of another proton which is bonded to the neutron proton by the strong force provides another positive charge which stabilizes the orbiting electron and makes the proton-neutron a stable particle.

There are five forces involved with the elementary particles. First, there is the 1.43 meganewton force which propels the neutrino. This is the force which produces the hydrogen atom and its gravitational field. Gravitation produces organization in the universe and is the ultimate source of all available energy.

The second largest force is the strong nuclear force. The strong nuclear force acts between two equal mass elementary matter particles, such as the protons in nucleons, when they are orbiting side-by-side, with the same rotary direction, and in-phase. The attractive force results because of the static pressure reduction produced by the gas inflow to the neutrinos. The closeness of the two particles is limited by the gas density increase as the ether flows into the neutrinos. The nuclear force is 267 Newtons.

When two equal mass elementary matter particles are rotating side-by-side in opposite directions a force still is generated and it can be attractive as well as repulsive. But its magnitude is many orders of magnitude less than the strong nuclear force (possibly 7 or 8 orders of magnitude less). Its range is on the order of the elementary matter particle orbital diameter. The flows of the ether gas into the neutrino are the origin of this weak nuclear force, of course.

The next force produced between two elementary matter particles is the electrostatic force. This force is much stronger than the weak nuclear force (by a factor of $10^5$ to $10^6 $) but weaker than the strong nuclear force (by the factor 1/137.1). The flows in the background ether gas produced by an orbiting neutrino are similar to the flows produced by a breathing sphere-except there is polarity produced by the twist of the orbiting-neutrino producing disturbance. This breathing sphere effect is not established until some distance away from the elementary matter particle. This breathing sphere with twist flow is the electrostatic field. Two elementary matter particles with like twist will repulse each other and with opposite twist will attract each other.

The fifth force is gravitation. When two electrostatic fields rotate about each other with a half amplitude equal the basic ether particle radius they produce a very small breathing sphere effect since the particle radius is so small. The breathing sphere effect is the gravitational field. A pair made up of two opposite charged elementary matter particles will interact with a distant similar pair to produce the gravitational force-which is less than the electromagnetic force by a factor of $10^37$.

Background on the structure of these particles can be found in Reference [1] as well as [2].

Copyright © 2017 by
Joseph M. Brown
Basic Research Press
120 E. Main Street
Starkville, MS 39759
USA
(662) 418-8602

References

1. Brown, Joseph M. The Mechanical Theory of Everything.  978-0-9712944-9-3.  Basic Research Press. Starkville, MS. USA. 2016.
2. Brown, Joseph M. Synopsis and Further Developments of the Mechanical Theory of Everything. Basic Research Press. Starkville, MS. USA. 2017.

 

 
 

Synopsis and Further Developments to the Mechanical Theory of Everything

The brutino is the smallest thing in the universe. Everything is made of brutinos—and nothing else.

The brutinos make up a rare gas which pervades the universe, and which extends indefinitely in all directions. This gas is called the ether. Every cubic meter of the universe has $10^{83}$ brutinos in it. These particles move at roughly ten times the speed of light, and they have a mass of $10^{-66}$ kg. The particles move and collide. All forces in the universe are the result of repeated collisions of the brutinos.

The ether possesses a vast amount of energy. The energy in a cubic meter of space is enough energy to supply the energy used on Earth for millennia. Nature, however, only lets us use a small amount of the energy. Getting useful energy out of the ether is akin to getting usable energy out of the atmosphere. The ether is different, which we will explain later, and we will show how all of our usable energy is derived from the ether.

The ether density is 50 trillion times that of lead. One would immediately wonder how we move in a sea of such a large…..

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Determining the Constants of The Mechanical Theory of Everything

My name is Joseph Milroy Brown (aka) Joe Brown. I was born on January 9, 1928 in the rural community of Gatewood near Fayetteville in southern West Virginia. I received two bachelor degrees in Mechanical Engineering from WVA University and Master and PhD degrees from Purdue with emphasis in Machine Design, Mechanics, and Mathematics. I worked in the Aerospace Industry for 20 years designing airplanes, missiles, space boosters, and satellites. I then taught mechanical engineering at Mississippi State University for 21 years. I am here to describe the unified theory of physical science presented in The Mechanical Theory of Everything.

I postulated that the universe is populated by an ether gas as required to transmit gravitational forces. The ether is a gas consisting of small elastic spheres moving at high velocities. The gas is very dense and very energetic. One cubic meter of the gas has enough energy to power the earth for millennia and the density is fifty trillion times as large as lead. How does nature obtain useful energy from this ether and how can we move so freely in such a dense ether?

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The Rise and Fall of Modern Physics

My name is Joseph Milroy Brown, aka Joe Brown. I was born on January 9, 1928 in the rural community of Gatewood near Fayetteville, which is a small town in southern West Virginia. I am here to tell you about my book, The Mechanical Theory of Everything. I received two bachelor degrees in engineering from West Virginia University. Also, I received master and PhD degrees from Purdue University with majors in Machine Design, Engineering Mechanics, and Mathematics.

I worked in the aerospace industry for 20 years designing airplanes, missiles, space boosters, and satellites. I taught engineering part-time at WVU, USC, and UCLA while an undergraduate, in graduate school, and while in industry. I taught machine design, mechanics, and thermodynamics at Mississippi State University for 21 years, ending in 1991. I then managed a chain of bookstores from 1991 until now which my wife and I own and operate.

Have you ever heard of the equation $E=mc^2$ ? How about the mass of a particle getting larger because it begins moving? How about a clock slowing down as it moves? And, how about material shrinking as it moves? All of these occur and the work of two different scientists explain how such things occur. One scientists was Albert Einstein (1879 – 1955) and the other was Isaac Newton (1643 – 1727). Einstein developed the equations explaining the phenomena using a weird four-dimensional system where time is the fourth dimension. Using Newton’s work, the exact same equations are developed describing the phenomena, i.e., strictly using classical mechanics. Actually, Newton did not develop the equations since he didn’t know the structure of matter. Knowing the structure of matter, which we do, and using Newtonian mechanics, gives straightforward answers to the mass growth, time variation, and matter shrinking questions. We now show you how this occurs. We also show some other interesting phenomena using classical mechanics.

We begin with an ether theory. We have an ether consisting of a gas of perfectly elastic, smooth, spherical, identical particles which are moving at high speed and colliding with each other. The ether is very energetic. One cubic meter of the ether gas has enough energy to power the earth for millennia. The ether is very dense.  Its density is 50 trillion times as great as lead. With such a great density, you may wonder how we can move. We’ll explain how we move in this talk. Not only is space filled with ether gas particles, but all matter, photons, everything in the universe is made of these gas particles. Our ground rules for the development of our theory are the laws of classical, or Newtonian, mechanics. From the postulated ether it is easy to derive the conservation laws:

  1. Mass is conserved;
  2. Linear Momentum is conserved (in three directions);
  3. Angular Momentum is conserved (in three directions);
  4. Energy is conserved.

Furthermore, defining force as the time rate of momentum imparted by collisions, it is easy to derive Newton’s famous law $F = ma$.

First, we describe the structure of matter. Matter at rest consists of a mass m taking a circular path with a velocity equal the speed of light c. Thus, the energy E of matter is given by

$E = mc^2$  [Eq. 1]

which is the formula postulated by Einstein.

In order for matter to move, photons impinge on the matter, deposit mass to the matter, and scatter off at lower energy (and a longer wavelength). The momentum imparted to the matter is equal to the mass captured times c, plus the momentum imparted by the scattered photon. The average scatter angle is 90° so that the average momentum imparted by the scattered photon is its mass times its speed, c. Thus, the average total momentum imparted is the total momentum of the impacting photon. Assuming many photons are used, the Newtonian analysis of the acceleration gives the equation for the mass at velocity, $m_v$ , as

$m_v = m_0 / \sqrt{1-(v/c)^2}$  [Eq. 2]

where $m_0$ is the mass at rest, $v$ is the particle velocity, and $c$ is the speed of light. The captured mass $m_c$ is

$m_c = m_v – m_0 = m_0 \left ( \frac{1}{\sqrt{1-(v/c)^2}} – 1 \right )$  [Eq. 3]

The circular path of the mass making matter changes to a plane spiral path as shown here.

Figure 1.  Rest and Moving Particle

Motion is accomplished simply by changing the direction of the moving mass – not by changing its speed. Impact by matter with a single ether particle will change the direction slightly. Thus, it is easy to move in the dense ether. The orbital path for one cycle of a moving particle is longer than that for a rest particle and the mass still moves at  velocity c. Thus, it takes longer to execute a cycle. The time for a cycle when moving, $T_v$ , is

$T_v = T_0 / \sqrt{1-(v/c)^2}$  [Eq. 4]

where $T_0$ is the time for a circular orbit.

The orbit seen from a reference frame moving with the particle is an ellipse with its minor diameter parallel to the velocity shortened by the factor

$d_v = d_0 \sqrt{1-(v/c)^2}$ [Eq. 5]

where $d_v$ is the minor diameter and $d_0$ is the diameter of the path at rest.

The five Newtonian equations are identical to the Einstein equations. However, the Einstein interpretations differ radically from the Newtonian interpretations. According to the Einstein theory:

  1. In equation (1) the particle does not have mass moving at velocity c. It is simply energy.
  2. Using equation (2) if you see a particle moving past you at velocity v, the Einstein theory says its mass is larger than $m_0$. If you run and catch up with the particle, its mass decreases to $m_0$.
  3. In equation (4) if the particle moves at velocity v relative to you, the time for an orbit is increased. If you catch up with the particle the orbit time goes back to the rest orbit time and the orbit shape goes back to circular.
  4. In equation (5), again, the length goes back to $l_0$ if you catch up with that particle.
  5. The Einstein theory postulates that photons always move at velocity c with respect to all frames, no matter what their velocity is. This is not true. The measurement of the velocity of a photon, using a clock and length measure on the given frame, always gives the same result since, for instance, the clock on a moving frame runs slower and the measuring rod shortens so that the ratio of length divided time is the same for all reference systems.
  6. A really absurd result of the Einstein theory is illustrated by two space ships approaching each other. An observer on the earth sees each one moving at 0.8 times the speed of light. The observer on one space ship sees the other space ship coming toward him at only 0.8 times the speed of light, according to the Einstein theory. Another interesting aspect of accelerating matter is what happens to the mass captured by the accelerated particle. Our Newtonian analysis results in the center of gravity of the mass being captured at a fixed distance from the particle. The two masses then rotate as they translate with their joint center of mass taking a straight path, of course, as shown below.

Another interesting aspect of accelerating matter is what happens to the mass captured by the accelerated particle. Our Newtonian analysis results in the center of gravity of the mass being captured at a fixed distance from the particle. The two masses then rotate as they translate with their joint center of mass taking a straight path, of course, as shown below.

Fig. 2.  Center of Gravity of Captured Mass/Particle

Thus, the particle undulates as it translates – giving it a wave property. The equation of this motion is obtained by balancing the centrifugal force on each mass by a centripetal force holding the mass in the curved path, i.e., F = ma. Writing F = ma for both masses gives the famous Schrödinger equation which spawned quantum theory. but the Schrödinger equation is simply a Newtonian (classical) mechanics equation.

Earlier we showed you that the Einstein relativity equations are derivable from classical (Newtonian) theory. We have just indicated that the foundation of quantum mechanics, i.e., the Schrödinger equation is derived from classical mechanics. Physicists almost universally believe this is impossible. They say the Schrödinger equation can not be derived from more fundamental principles. But, actually, the Schrödinger equation is a Newtonian system. Now modern physics was ushered in by Einstein’s special relativity and quantum mechanics. However, both theories are Newtonian theory. We believe Newton should usher out modern physics and usher back in classical physics.

 
 

What is the Difference Between Energy & Kinetic Energy?

The energy of matter is $ mc^2 $ where $ m $ is the mass of the matter and $ c $ is the velocity of light. We consider an example of a Newtonian system accelerating a mass $m $ from zero to velocity $ v $, where $ v \ll c $. The energy given up by the Newtonian system is $ mv^2 $. We also show that the work done by the accelerating system is half the energy given up by the accelerating system.

We know that the energy of matter is $ mc^2 $, i.e., its mass times the square of velocity. We say that a ball of mass $ m $ translating at velocity $ v $ has a kinetic energy of $ \frac{1}{2} {mv^2} $. But, isn’t its energy $ mv^2 $? We think so. How do we reconcile the fact that the work, i.e. energy expended, which is $ \int F dx $ required to bring the energy of the ball up to $ mv^2 $, when only half that amount of work is required?

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What is the Difference Between Energy and Kinetic Energy

 
 

The Beginnings of the Universe

In this post I discuss what we may infer about the beginnings of the universe.

Using the kinetic particle theory of the universe we begin with a three dimensional space which contains a gas of small (10-35 m diameter, 10-66 kg mass) particles which are smooth and perfectly elastic.  They have an average speed ten times the speed of light.  Due to the random velocities of these particles winds are formed and occasional permanent tornado-like assemblies are produced which live forever.  These assemblies are condensations of the background gas, they move at a tenth the average speed of the background gas (and thus, they translate at the speed of light), and occur in an extended range of masses.  These assemblages are neutrinos.  On rare occasions a neutrino with the mass of a proton will collide with other neutrinos and end up taking a circular path.  Such an event of a neutrino with the mass of a proton taking a circular path produces a proton. Continue reading The Beginnings of the Universe