What’s New & What’s Old With Joe Brown’s Theory?

Joe Brown uses an *ether gas,* which is *old as the hills.* He also uses Newton’s mechanics—the space and time are separate; mass, momentum, angular momentum, and energy are conserved—also *F=ma*.

Let us now talk about the *new.*

- The ether is made up of a rare gas consisting of perfectly elastic, smooth, hard, identical, fast-moving spheres. The ether has a long
*mean free path*—l/d =10^{19}. - No one before Brown bothered to define a physically realizable ether. Complete condensations of the ether occur. The condensations are of the same scale as the mean free path. The long mean free path permits condensations on the scale of the mean free path since particles
*coming in*don’t meet particles*coming out.*But a*pump*is required to bring the ingoing particles out of the condensation in very small streams. Brown discovered the pump. It is simple, particles being aligned without changing their speeds then being squeezed together without changing their energy flow 8% faster than before being squeezed. This phenomenon produces the*pump*for removing particles from the core of the condensation and provides a thrust of 1.4 meganewtons to propel the condensations at the speed of light. Any mechanics person worth his salt can understand this process if he/she will just*think*. These condensations are the neutrinos. The condensations and the pump discoveries are new. - What controls the mass of the proton? All neutrinos have the same angular momentum and all masses of neutrinos have the same thrust, 1.4 meganewtons. A neutrino with the mass of a proton can orbit with its thrust balancing the centrifugal force. There is only one mass, which can produce the correct angular momentum and balance the centrifugal force. That mass is the mass of the proton, and that orbiting mass is the proton. This is new and it is not complicated like the
*8-fold way.* - When translating, the neutrino emits two fine streams of ether particles, one forward at the RMS velocity, v
_{r}, of the background gas, and the other at the mean speed, v_{m}, of the background gas. The velocity v_{r}is 8% larger than v_{m}so the neutrino translates at velocity v_{r}-v_{m}, which is slightly greater than the speed of light. The mass flow out these two streams balances the mass rate flowing into the neutrino. - When the neutrino is
*in orbit,*as in the proton, it establishes a gross in-out flow similar to that produced by an expanding-contracting sphere in the atmosphere. This is the Coulomb field. Polarity is produced by the right-hand spin of the neutrino making the proton. This field interacting with a similar field produces inverse square forces with attraction between fields produced by unlike handedness and repulsion by like handedness. We know of no other theory of the force produced by interacting charges. Further, our theory is of the utmost simplicity. - The proton neutrino orbits with a radius of 10
^{-16}The outflow of the forward stream at velocity v_{r}followed by an opposite stream at velocity v_{m}produces a radial expanding wave with an amplitude of 10^{-16}m and a radial flow advancing at the velocity of light. The velocity is slightly less than v_{r}-v_{m}. The transverse flow produced by the neutrino translating at v_{r}-v_{m }also produces waves with a dimension of 10^{-16}m. The radial and transverse flows produce*wavespaces*with the dimension 10^{-16}m by 10^{-16}m by 10^{-16}m. These wavespaces carry the mass away from the proton at the speed of light. These wavespaces are the*fine structure*of the electrostatic field. Finally (2016) we have discovered what the fine structure is. Quantum electrodynamicists have discovered its magnitude to one part in 10^{11}, but they do not know what the fine structure is. - When a matter particle is moving at velocity v there is a closed string of wavespaces in the shape of an ellipse, which encircles the particle. The minor axis of the ellipse is parallel to the velocity and the eccentricity of the ellipse is v/c, where c is the velocity of light. The mass m
_{c}is the mass captured by the matter particle when it was accelerated from rest. This mass is captured off-center and it rotates about the particle as it translates. This produces the wave property of matter and the magnetic field of the charged particle. This is new. - As a charged particle translates the captured mass and the particle attract each other (by an electromagnetic force) so that the distance between them is stable. Applying Newton’s law (F=ma) to the motion, an equation almost exactly the same as the Schrödinger equation results. This is new with Joe Brown’s theory, and it is
*earth shaking*. Most physicists believe that quantum mechanics cannot be derived from Newtonian (classical) mechanics. - The Schrödinger equation is a second order partial differential equation in two variables, space
*x*and time*t*. The equation for the*free*translation is always*separable*into two ordinary differential equations. The separation constant is the*total energy*of the particle. We have proved that the energy transferred to a particle of mass*m*to accelerate it to velocity*v*is mv^{2}, even though the work done on the particle is ½ mv^{2}. Thus, the kinetic energy is only half of the total energy of the particle and of the energy transmitted by the accelerating medium. Using the total energy as mv^{2}, rather than the (incorrect) conventionally used total energy of ½ mv^{2}results in a period from the Schrödinger*time*equation, which is equal to the period of the electron. On the other hand if the incorrect energy $mv^2/2$ in the time equation is used the period is double the period of the translating electron, which is impossible. This gives further evidence that the particle total energy is mv^{2}for the separation constant. Using*mv*^{2}in the*space*equation shows that the factor 2 in the Schrödinger equation should be unity. With this correction to the Schrödinger equation we prove that the Schrödinger equation is simply an application of Newton’s equation F=ma. These results of course, are new (and earth shaking). - In order to accelerate a matter particle, which like all matter particles consists of an orbiting neutrino, it is necessary to change the path of the neutrino from circular to a plane spiral. Since matter particles produce electrostatic fields, part of the accelerating photon can be captured by the
*field*and re-direct the path of the circularly orbiting matter particles. This captured mass adds momentum to the particle and thus causes it to translate. The resulting mass*m*of the particle moving at velocity c is given by $m_v=m_o/\sqrt{1-(v/c)^2}$ is the rest mass. The mass growth with velocity was observed experimentally and Einstein postulated (rather than derived) the above expression in his development of the special theory of relativity. This classical derivation of the mass growth formula was obtained by Dr. Darrell B. Harmon, Jr. in 1969 – but it still is not recognized by the physics community. It is the first step in proving the space-time assumptions of special relativity are erroneous._{v} - The plane spiral path of a neutrino making a translating matter particle has the shape of an ellipse when viewed from a frame moving with the particle. The minor axis of this ellipse is parallel to the particle velocity and the ellipse eccentricity is v/c. As a result the particle, and all matter, shortens with motion by the factor $\sqrt{1-(v/c)^2}$. This is just another nail in the special theory of relativity coffin – discovered by the developers of the kinetic particle theory of physics.
- The time required for one orbit of the neutrino making a matter particle is longer when the particle is moving. The relation is $T_v=T_o/\sqrt{1-(v/c)^2}$ where
*T*is the cycle time when moving and_{v}*T*is the cycle time when at rest. This means that nucleii decay times will increase when moving. Surely this is the last coffin nail, which will be required to eliminate the special theory of relativity from physical science._{o} - We prove that the orbiting neutrino, such as that making the proton, produces an oscillation in the background gas, which is the Coulomb field. Further, we show that two particles of opposite charge in orbit with each other produces the gravitational field. To produce the electrostatic field the half amplitude of the oscillation is the orbital radius of the proton. To produce the gravitational field the half amplitude of the oscillation of the electron relative to the proton is the radius of the basic ether particle, 10
^{-35}Thus, we have derived Einstein’s unified field theory. This is new, scientists should not spend much time studying a complex*space warp*in the presence of matter for producing gravity – while gravitation is just caused by a mechanical*breathing sphere*phenomenon. This is a new with Joe Brown’s theory. Nonetheless Einstein’s theories have been useful and no reasonable alternatives have been available until now. Einstein was an unparalleled scientist. - The universe is not expanding! In1924 Edwin Hubble discovered that photons emitted from distant stars were shifted toward the red more than those from close stars. The physics community (eventually) interpreted the shift as a Doppler effect and, thus that more distant stars were moving away from the earth faster than close stars. They said,
*the universe is expanding.*Actually the universe is not expanding. The angular momentum of the emitting atom/photon remains constant as the photon translates. The photon loses one ether particle for each wavelength of travel. Photons leaving a star 10^{10}light years from the earth will use the last of the ether particles when they reach the earth. Light*wears out*. This mechanism is a*new development*of the kinetic particle theory of physics.

Joseph M. Brown