ISBN: 0-9712944-6-1

Published 2004. Hardbound. $29.95

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Preface

This book presents a whole new paradigm for physics. It presents a unified mechanism for deriving all the primary observables in physics. It presents a mechanical model of the neutrino, it shows a mechanism for the fine structure constant and shows why it pervades all of physics, it shows how fundamental particles have a constant value of angular momentum, and it shows the structure of a proton, how its mass, angular momentum, strong nuclear, weak nuclear, and charge fields are produced. A structure of the electron is developed which shows how its mass is held together, how it produces the charge field, and how it produces angular momentum. The book presents the structure of the neutron which gives evidence of how the weak nuclear force functions, and shows the special relativity mechanisms for mass-energy equivalence, mass growth with velocity, matter shortening with velocity, and time dilation. It shows why the mechanism of mass growth of matter with velocity gives matter waves and shows that the waves produce magnetism by the same mechanism that the proton and other charged particles produce their electrostatic field. The book shows that atoms and neutrons produce gravitational fields by a mechanism similar to the breathing sphere model which produces electrostatic fields. The amplitude of the breathing sphere is controlled by, and is equal to, the basic ether particle radius. Further, the same mechanism controlling the breathing sphere amplitude is believed to remove one basic ether particle from a photon for each wave of travel that it executes, which gives the illusion of an expanding universe.

The fine structure constant, 1/137.036, is the ratio of the electromagnetic force to the nuclear force. It also is the velocity of the lowest energy electron orbit in a hydrogen atom in velocity of light units. It pervades all of quantum electrodynamics. However, the number has been a mystery since it was discovered more than seventy years ago. In this model of a grand unified theory of the universe, everything is made up of kinetic particles. The gas of these particles has a root mean square speed that is eight percent larger than the mean speed. We show a model in which the electromagnetic speed (the speed of light) is the difference of these speeds. Also, the same model gives the strong nuclear speed as the background mean speed. Forces generated in a kinetic particle universe, of course, are a function of the square of the speed. The square of the ratio of these two speeds, the root mean square speed less the mean speed to the mean speed is 1/137.109 and thus clearly must be the ratio of the electromagnetic force to the strong nuclear force.

Einstein’s special theory of relativity uses a space-time continuum and predicts that as velocity increases, the mass of matter will increase, the length of matter will shorten, and time for processes will increase. Further, the energy content of matter is its mass times the square of the speed of light. The Einstein system is almost universally accepted in science. Many physicists believe it is impossible to derive the theory of relativity observations from classical Newtonian mechanics. In this paper we present a system of absolute space with a separate absolute time, a purely classical (Newtonian) system, from which the above four phenomena are derived. The system used is a kinetic particle system. The model immediately gives the equivalent energy of mass. The model also gives the wave properties of matter in motion.

Magnetism is known to be due to charges in motion. We present a kinetic particle mechanism which produces the electrostatic force, produces the deBroglie wave property of matter, and shows that the deBroglie wave generates the same mechanism which produces the electrostatic force to produce the magnetic force.

The model of the proton structure and its formation, which we present, leads into a hypothesized structure for the electron. With this structure of the electron the structure of the neutron is indicated. We thus present structures for the most basic assemblage of particles, which is the neutrino, and we derive structures for the proton, electron, and neutron. The mechanism producing gravity is similar to that producing electromagnetism. When the electron is formed the portion of its structure producing the electrostatic field matches the proton electrostatic field except always in the opposite directions. The result is that the flows are matched except for the diameter of a basic ether particle. So, the two fields move with a half amplitude equal the ether particle radius with respect to each other. This then produces the gravitational field. Quantum electrodynamic effects are the result of each elementary matter charge particle consisting of a discrete mass which orbits at the speed of light and produces waves in the background. Matter in motion has a wave path as a result of being accelerated by an eccentric mass. A photon is a narrow “string” of mass which extends completely over one wave length. The particles in the waves have velocities with magnitude and direction. A wave function is a complex number and can be used to describe the expected velocity (magnitude and direction) of a matter or radiation particle. The function is called the probability amplitude. When an event occurs with two possible paths, 1 and 2 then *|Ψ _{1}+Ψ_{2}|^{2}* gives the probability of the combined event. This is the basis of the derivation of the Schroedinger equation. We illustrate the use of probability amplitudes in the analysis of the partial reflection of light and in diffraction gratings. All of these results taken together can only lead to the conclusion that the universe is made up of Newtonian kinetic particles.

**Contents**

Preface

1. The Postulates

2. The Fine Structure Constant

3. Relativity and the Wave Property of Matter

4. Electrostatics and Magnetism

5. Neutrino, Proton, Electron, and Neutron Structures

6. Gravitation and the Non-Expanding Universe

7. Quantum Mechanics

8. Quantum Electrodynamics

9. Closure

Appendix A. Determination of the Basic Constants of Physics

Appendix B. Further Discussion of the Neutrino Structure

Appendix C. Inverse Square Forces in a Hydrodynamic Medium

Appendix D: Entropy, Heat Engines, and Neutrinos

Appendix E: A Personal History of the Kinetic Particle Unified Physics

References

Index

Click here to order *The Grand Unified Theory of Physics*.

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