Dr. Joseph M. Brown’s latest book, *The Mechanical Theory of Everything*, is available now from Basic Research Press and Amazon.

This volume represents a lifetime of research into the problems and foundations of biology, physics, mathematics, and language.

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Also available on Amazon.

### The Schrödinger Equation is a Newtonian Equation

When a photon impacts a free matter particle at rest, mass and momentum are imparted to the particle, and it accelerates to velocity $v$. The center of mass of the imparted mass is captured at such a radius that the angular momentum imparted to the system is equal to Planck’s constant $h$. The imparted mass and the impacted particle mass remain at a fixed distance from each other, and they begin rotating about their common center of mass as the system center of mass translates in a straight line. This motion is manifested as a matter particle undulating as it translates. The wavelength of this undulation is $h/(mv)$, where $m$ is the matter particle mass. The Schrödinger equation models the dynamics of the motion of the matter particle relative to a reference frame moving with the captured mass/matter particle system. Solution to the equation gives the velocity of the matter particle as a function of the location of the particle. We derive the Schrödinger equation by balancing the centrifugal forces against the centripetal forces. Thus, we show that the Schrödinger equation is a Newtonian equation. [Click here for the full article.]

### The Neutrino: A Counter Example to the Second Law of Thermodynamics

by Joseph M. Brown

The kinetic particle model of the neutrino was first discovered in 1968-9 and published in Brown and Harmon [1]. All that was known at that time was that the neutrino had to be the result of a complete condensation of the ether gas which pervades the universe. Shortly after that time it was discovered that the Maxwell-Boltzmann parameters v_{r} and v_{m} arranged in the form [(v_{r}—v_{m})/v_{m}]^{2} had the value 1/137.1. Since v_{r} and v_{m} characterize the gas that makes up the ether and the magnitude of the parameters so arranged was close to the fine structure constant [2], the researchers were encouraged that the kinetic particle approach to physical theory must have merit.

A little over ten years later it was discovered that if background particles were condensed, as required by the neutrino model, and aligned to all move in the same direction without changing their individual speeds, then if they were squeezed together so they all touched each other without changing their energy then the condensed assembly would translate at the speed v_{r}—v_{m} (see [3] and [4]). Thus, it was known that the speed of light is v_{r}—v_{m}.

Further, the condensation and acceleration process described above provided a means for extracting background particles, which were forming the condensed state. However, it was not known at that time (1982) how the background particles could come in from the background and result in a complete condensation. It was not known how this condensation could be possible until 2012 [5].

The following paragraphs outline the rigorous analysis of the neutrino. This is a proof that a stable inhomogeneous state of Newtonian particles can exist. This analysis shows that the second law of thermodynamics is not universally true. In this analysis the ether gas is made of brutino particles and is called the brutino gas.