This volume represents a lifetime of research into the problems and foundations of biology, physics, mathematics, and language.
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The Neutrino: A Counter Example to the Second Law of Thermodynamics
by Joseph M. Brown
The kinetic particle model of the neutrino was first discovered in 1968-9 and published in Brown and Harmon . All that was known at that time was that the neutrino had to be the result of a complete condensation of the ether gas which pervades the universe. Shortly after that time it was discovered that the Maxwell-Boltzmann parameters vr and vm arranged in the form [(vr—vm)/vm]2 had the value 1/137.1. Since vr and vm characterize the gas that makes up the ether and the magnitude of the parameters so arranged was close to the fine structure constant , the researchers were encouraged that the kinetic particle approach to physical theory must have merit.
A little over ten years later it was discovered that if background particles were condensed, as required by the neutrino model, and aligned to all move in the same direction without changing their individual speeds, then if they were squeezed together so they all touched each other without changing their energy then the condensed assembly would translate at the speed vr—vm (see  and ). Thus, it was known that the speed of light is vr—vm.
Further, the condensation and acceleration process described above provided a means for extracting background particles, which were forming the condensed state. However, it was not known at that time (1982) how the background particles could come in from the background and result in a complete condensation. It was not known how this condensation could be possible until 2012 .
The following paragraphs outline the rigorous analysis of the neutrino. This is a proof that a stable inhomogeneous state of Newtonian particles can exist. This analysis shows that the second law of thermodynamics is not universally true. In this analysis the ether gas is made of brutino particles and is called the brutino gas.