Hi, Readers! Don’t panic, but we’re rearranging the site a little bit in response to suggestions we’ve received from our readers and visitors. Thank you for your valuable input, and please “pardon our progress!”
All the best in 2015,
Hi, Readers! Don’t panic, but we’re rearranging the site a little bit in response to suggestions we’ve received from our readers and visitors. Thank you for your valuable input, and please “pardon our progress!”
All the best in 2015,
Using the kinetic particle theory of the universe we begin with a three dimensional space which contains a gas of small (10-35 m diameter, 10-66 kg mass) particles which are smooth and perfectly elastic. They have an average speed ten times the speed of light. Due to the random velocities of these particles winds are formed and occasional permanent tornado-like assemblies are produced which live forever. These assemblies are condensations of the background gas, they move at a tenth the average speed of the background gas (and thus, they translate at the speed of light), and occur in an extended range of masses. These assemblages are neutrinos. On rare occasions a neutrino with the mass of a proton will collide with other neutrinos and end up taking a circular path. Such an event of a neutrino with the mass of a proton taking a circular path produces a proton. Simultaneously an electron is made and due to the electrostatic attraction of an electron to a proton, a hydrogen atom is formed. All matter consists of neutrinos taking a circular path. The combined electrostatic fields of the electron and proton in the hydrogen atom stir the background gas and produce the gravitational force field. Gravitation causes hydrogen atoms, which are continually being made, to assemble with each other. These assemblages continually grow and form hydrogen stars. Hydrogen stars continually grow. Their gravitation gets strong enough to collapse the electronic orbits in hydrogen and make neutrons – and, thus, neutron stars. Neutron stars keep growing and, finally, their gravitational fields get strong enough to collapse the nuclear structure, then nucleons return back to free neutrinos which cause the neutron star to explode. The explosion produces fragments of all sizes including, black holes, smaller neutron stars, hydrogen stars, planets, moons, asteroids, comets, and space dust.
The kinetic theory model of the beginning of the universe is contrasted with the big-bang theory. In this theory the universe begins with an infinitesimal space containing an infinite mass 1013 years ago. The mass begins expanding, much as a fertilized organic seed begins growing to make a complete organism, and the expansion begins showing structures such as nucleons, atoms, planets, and stars. The explosion has continued for 1013 years and is still continuing. Space ends at 1013 light years from the earth (that is 1034 meters distant). With the kinetic particle theory what we can see of the universe ends to a sphere centered at the earth and with a radius of 1034 meters – but space extends indefinitely in all directions.
When matter is in motion at velocities approaching the speed of light, experiments show some unusual phenomena occur. The mass increases as given by the equation
where mo is the mass when at rest, mv is the mass when moving at velocity v, and where c is the speed of light. Matter shortens when it moves. For example, a bar of steel of length lo when at rest will shorten to length lv where
when moving in the longitudinal direction of the bar. Finally, radioactive materials which decay naturally decay slower when moving than when at rest as given by the equation
This phenomenon is known as time dilation. These phenomena were discovered a century ago.
At the time of the discovery of these events, the structure of matter, as well as the constitution of photons, were unknown. A radical theory interconnecting space and time was devised, principally by Albert Einstein, which explained these phenomena. This theory is known as the special theory of relativity. Shortly after its introduction the theory was accepted by the physics community and, even today, the theory is embraced by the vast majority of physicists throughout the world.
With the structure of matter and the constitution of photons proposed in the kinetic particle theory of physics the phenomena of mass growth, matter shortening, and time dilation are derived from Newtonian absolute space/ separate absolute time mechanics rather than the Einsteinian space-time mechanics.
Determination of the mass growth with velocity is simple. Consider a proton at rest with its mass, mo. A photon of mass m impacts the mass. In order to obey mass conservation, momentum conservation, and energy conservation part of the mass scatters off and part is captured. The calculation for repeated impacts gives the result.
The neutrino making the proton travels in a circular path at velocity c, the speed of light, when the proton is at rest. (Incidentally the proton energy is its mass mo times the square of its velocity, i.e., Eo=mc2.) When the photon impacts the proton the neutrino takes a plane spiral path in order to move. The proton neutrino acts like a rocket with its huge thrust and in order to advance through the dense background gas, it directs its thrust somewhat forward and thus the proton moves forward.
For an observer at rest the neutrino motion appears as a plane spiral. An observer moving with the proton sees an elliptical path with its major axis perpendicular to the motion having the same value as the resting proton radius and with its minor axis parallel to the proton velocity and with the magnitude rv=ro/(1-(v/c)2)1/2 . Thus, since every matter particle has this same contraction in size with velocity a complete bar will contract as given by this same expression. The time required for an orbit (i.e., the time for the neutrino to transverse a cycle) increases with velocity as given by
Nuclear decay is presumed to require an average number of cycles so when moving more time is required to reach the average number so decay is slower when moving.
In the Einstein system the experimentally observed mass growth is assumed to be true rather than being derived from first principles. Furthermore, any observer moving at any velocity assumes that the matter which is at rest with respect to himself is the minimum mass, i.e., the mass has the value of mo. If the mass then is accelerated in any direction so that it moves at velocity v relative to him then its mass mo will be given by
Another observer at rest relative to the moving matter would determine its mass to be mo. An additional facet of the Einstein system is that the photons that accelerate the mass have energy only, i.e., they have no mass. When they impact the proton being accelerated part of the energy scatters off (not as mass but just energy) and part of the energy is changed to mass which is added to the proton’s mass.
A similar effect of matter shortening with velocity results from the Einstein system. No matter what magnitude of velocity nor what direction an observer is going if he has a bar of steel its length is at a maximum, i.e., lo. If the bar moves at velocity v relative to him then the length is
A second observer moving with the bar at velocity v would say its length is lo.
Finally, with the Einstein system, we have a similar effect with clocks. An observer sees a clock at rest and its hands rotate at a certain rate. If the clock moves relative to him the hands turn at a reduced rate so that the moving clock time τv is related to the rest rate τo by
An observer moving with the clock sees the time as τo.
With the kinetic particle theory of physics an energetic gas exists uniformly throughout the universe. The energy of the gas per unit volume of space is astounding – approximately 1039 joules per cubic meter. All the energy humans have collectively used since the beginning of time is much less than the energy stored in each cubic meter of the universe. Also, no matter what is done the total energy never changes. But just how is energy made available? There are a number of steps in the process of making usable energy.
First, nuclear sized condensations of the gas pervading the universe, which we call the ether gas, are continually made. Some of these condensations are long-lived, develop a mega-newton sized thrust, and travel at the speed of light. These condensations are the neutrinos. The thrust driving the neutrinos do work, but not work humans can use directly.
Neutrinos can impact other neutrinos and get knocked into circular orbits. A neutrino with the mass of a proton has a stable orbit as is one with the mass of an electron. These stable orbiting neutrinos form a hydrogen atom – the electron orbits the proton.
The stirring of the background (ether) gas produced by the proton adding to the stirring of the ether by the electron produces a gravitational field. The gravitational fields of hydrogen atoms interact so that hydrogen atoms are attracted to each other. Eventually due to the continual production of hydrogen atoms and the continual assembling of the atoms, hydrogen stars are produced.
As hydrogen stars grow their gravitational fields get strong enough that captured hydrogen atoms are transmuted into neutrons. The neutrons and protons of the hydrogen atoms have high vibratory velocities (i.e., high temperatures) so that they fuse to make larger mass atoms. When fusion occurs large amounts of energy in the form of photons are emitted. The photons are made of the ether gas particles, they travel at the speed of light (of course) and are intercepted on the earth. The energy of the photons intercepting the earth is the energy that is usable by humans.
Only a small portion of the energy intercepted by the earth is usable. Most of it is reflected back to space. Some photons are intercepted by solar cells and directly produce electrical energy. Most of the usable energy, however, comes from plants intercepting photons and producing organic materials (food, wood, coal, natural gas, etc.) which humans use and, of course, humans directly use photons (for example, to keep warm).
Alternate to the kinetic particle theory of physics is the standard model. The standard model of physical theory begins with a Higgs field. This field pervades the universe just as does the ether gas of the kinetic particle theory. However, the field has no mass. It is just an energy field. The Higgs particle is constructed of a (very small) portion of the Higgs field, but again, it is massless – it is just made of energy. Somehow the Higgs particle can construct matter particles (with mass). The mechanism by which this is done is not clear. Once the elementary particles are constructed, such as the proton and electron, then to a great extent the Standard Model Theory parallels the kinetic particle theory of physics as both evolve usable energy. However, the Standard Model does not show how gravitation is produced while the kinetic particle does.
Neutrinos are continually formed from the background (ether) gas which pervades the universe. Neutrinos are formed with a wide range of mass. A neutrino having a value of mass equal to the mass of a hydrogen atom can collide with other neutrinos and begin taking a circular orbit. This orbiting neutrino is a proton. Simultaneously with the formation of the proton, the flows produced in the background form a template for producing an electron. The electron then orbits the proton to produce the hydrogen atom. Hydrogen atoms are made continually.
Hydrogen atoms have gravitational fields. They continually attract each other and thus accumulate. These accumulations eventually grow into hydrogen stars. The stars continually grow.
As hydrogen stars continually grow their gravitational fields get stronger and stronger. Thus, newly formed hydrogen atoms are attracted with greater and greater forces. What happens to a hydrogen atom when subjected to large forces? To answer this we need to understand the structure of an electron.
The electron is constructed from one neutrino which has the same mass as the electron. All neutrinos have the same magnitude of thrust (approximately one million newtons) so when it orbits its mass being 1/1836th the proton’s requires that its orbital diameter be 1/1836th that of the proton. This orbital radius is the radius of the inertial path of the electron. Now, the electron must produce the negative electrostatic field to balance the positive electrostatic field of the proton. This requires that the electron travel in a loop with the same period as that of the proton (which is producing its electrostatic fields in a period τp=(2πrp)/c = (2π×1016)/3×108 = 2.1×10-24 sec). Since the periods are the same and the electrons in this loop must travel slower than its speed (i.e., the speed of light) in its inertial loop, this loop must have a radius smaller than the proton orbital radius. The radius of this electrostatic loop is slightly greater than ten times the inertial loop radius. Next, the electron, as with all of the most fundamental particles must have an angular momentum of ħ/2, where ħ is Planck’s constant (ħ = 10-34 kg-m/s). This radius similarly must be greater than the electrostatic loop radius. Its value is 10-13 m. The electron is shown here.
If the electron is compressed with sufficient force the angular momentum loop collapses. The electron then appears as
Thus the hydrogen atom changes as illustrated below.
The hydrogen atom becomes a neutron. The neutron consists of two particles — a proton and a collapsed electron. The electron in the neutron consists of the inertial path (of the electron neutrino) and the electrostatic path. The angular momentum path of the electron neutrino is not present in the neutron.
The production of neutrons continually occurs in the universe. The larger the hydrogen stars are, the greater the rate of neutron production. Initially the neutrons are produced as a result of the high energy they obtain as the hydrogen star captures them. Eventually a stars gravitational field gets larger enough to collapse the hydrogen atoms it already has. Such a star as that can collapse the majority of its hydrogen atoms and become a neutron star. The diameter of such a star can suddenly become just over one percent as large as it was before the collapse.
The presence of neutrons in a star provides a means for producing larger mass atoms. Proton neutrinos all have the same orbital diameters. Two protons, such as the proton and a proton in a neutron, can attract each other (since their orbital diameters are all the same). The attraction mechanism is illustrated below.
The pressure between the two proton neutrinos is lowered because the ether gas is flowing between them. The lowering of pressure is the result of the lowered temperature of the flowing gas compared to the temperature of the gas at rest.
The proton of the hydrogen atom and the neutron are called nucleons. The above described force is the strong nuclear force and it can be developed between nucleons thus making large nuclei and also, the more massive atoms. Atoms with more than 200 nuclei are formed naturally.
 This is reminiscent of the lowered temperature produced by compressed air flowing from a gas nozzle hooked to an air compressor.
The earth attracts the moon. What is the mechanism of gravity? A proton attracts an electron and a proton repels a proton. What produces these forces between matter? Clearly there must be a medium between pieces of matter in order to produce the forces. Then how in the world is it possible to develop forces of repulsion and, presumably the more difficult problem, of developing forces of attraction?
Let us begin with a simple experiment. Below we show a large tank of water and two elastic (rubber-like) balls which can be inflated and deflated cyclically, see the figure. Two spheres are shown which are connected to pipes.
Fluid can be fed into the balls to make the balls expand to the outer dashed-line spheres and then by reducing the pressure in the pipes the spheres can be contracted to the inner dashed-line spheres. Means are provided to cycle the pressure so that the spheres experience a continual cycling between the two extremes. Furthermore the two spheres can expand simultaneously then contract simultaneously, i.e., they can cycle in-phase, or one sphere can expand while the other contracts and thus be 180° out of phase.
In this tank means are provided for measuring horizontal forces parallel to the x-axis acting to separate the spheres or to bring them closer together. The force measurement system is not shown. Also, the distance to r can be varied.
What occurs when the experiment is performed is that the spheres attract each other when the spheres expand and contract in phase and repel each other when out-of-phase. Also, when the value of r changes the magnitude of the force varies inversely with the square of the separation distance.
A theoretical analysis of the interaction was obtained about twenty years after the experiments were performed. The equation for the value of the maximum resulting force F is
F=ρ (8π2 a4 α2)/(r2 T2 )
where a is the nominal radius of the breathing spheres, alpha is the half amplitudes of the oscillation of the spheres, and T is the period (i.e., time for one cycle) of the oscillation.
In the case of an incompressible medium (water, in this case) the force is attractive when breathing is in phase and repulsive when out of phase. The theoretical analysis was extended to include oscillating solid spheres and rotating dumbbells — always with the same result. Also, the theoretical analysis was extended to account for an acoustic medium. In this case the forces were attractive when breathing was out-of-phase and repulsive when in-phase. More recently, Steinert in 1984, see Reference 1, modeled and electric charge as a dumbbell connected to the end of a rod which was rotated at angular velocity, omega, about its center as shown below. The dumbbell rotates
Model of Positive Charge
about its longitudinal axes as shown in the figure. The rotation, ω1, simulates the orbit of the neutrino producing the charge and the rotation, ω2, simulates the intrinsic angular momentum of the charged particle. In this figure we show a right-hand charged particle since the dumbbell moves to the left as shown and ω2 would make a right hand screw advance to the left. Thus, the figure shown models a positive charge. The figure below models a negative charge.
Model of Negative Charge
The analysis was performed for two like charges separated by a large distance r as well as two unlike charges immersed in an elastic medium.
The result of the analyses showed that the mechanism would force phasing. The like charges were 180° out of phase and the unlike charges were in phase. The period, T, is given by
where a is the orbital radius and c is the tangential velocity of the dumbbell. Using T from above the force is
F=(2a2 α2 c)/r2
We applied this to simulate the force between two protons or a proton and an antiproton. We assumed a was the orbital radius of the neutrino making the proton. We assumed the amplitude of oscillation was the same as the neutrino orbital radius. Of course c is the speed of light. Now the maximum force is
It is attractive for unlike charges and repulsive for like charges.
As a result of the above analysis, it is concluded that the orbiting neutron making up a proton produces the electrostatic field. The electrostatic fields of two protons force the protons apart. The electrostatic fields of two particles of two opposite charged particles force the two particles together.
Steinert extended the analysis to show that a residual field is produced by a negatively charged particle orbiting the positively charged particle such as in a hydrogen atom. This produces a much higher order (much weaker) field than the electrostatic field. The fields of two such assemblies, such as produced by two hydrogen atoms, produce a force of attraction between the two assemblies. We have concluded that this is the mechanism of gravity.
The predominant present day theory of gravitation was evolved by Einstein. In this theory mass produces a warp in space which causes matter to attract other matter.
Physics for the Millions, a simple and interesting way to learn about the kinetic particle theory, has arrived and is ready for purchase. Learn about the smallest particles known with easy to understand illustrations and explanations of the physics of quantum matter and how it creates the world we know.
A Possible Cause of Cancer and Aging
The cause of aging as well as the cause of cancer may be due to torsional strain induced in DNA at each division cycle. If this theory is correct, the DNA is separated by pulling apart and twisting each strand of DNA. While the strand is held apart, a new strand is constructed. Then, as the DNA building machinery leaves, the new strands are torqued and the original strands have the torque partly released. Each subsequent cell division results in another increment of torsional strain. Eventually the strain becomes large enough so that transcription fidelity is hampered or even stopped and the cell is degraded or dies. Aging of the organism would be manifested by the appearance and performance of the cell.
The cure for aging and cancer, then, would come from finding the genes producing the cell membrane, and learning how to turn the genes on and off.
A Possible Cause of Cancer and Aging
Most eukaryotic cells age. Each time an aging eukaryotic cell divides, the two daughter cells differ from the parent cell. These differences accumulate as the divisions continue over time. In many cells, the initial differences from one generation to the next are advantageous to the organism – they produce the many different types of cells which give the organism the myriad of different capabilities. The result of some later divisions is deleterious. Eventually the cell ceases functioning and dies. When enough cells die the organism dies.
Some somatic eukaryotic cells do not age. Cells from a cancer patient were used to establish a line in 1952, known as HeLa cells, which has continued hundreds of generations throughout the past 60 years. Cancer cells generally are thought to be immortal.
Another type of cell which does not age is the sex cell. The sex cell from Julius Caesar and his mate produced sex-cells which mated with sex-cells from another couple; the result gave sex cells in a subsequent generation; then to another generation, on to the present day. The descendant sex cell of today’s generation is just as viable as the antecedent sex cell of over two thousand years ago. Thus we think of sex-cells as immortal
From the facts that cells with diploid DNA (of somatic cells which have double strands of DNA) do not age leads to the inescapable conclusion that the unwinding/rebuilding of the interwound DNA strand is the root cause of aging of double stranded DNA cells. Something occurs during the DNA duplicating process in diploid cells that produces aging.
We also know that a wide variety of somatic (i.e., cells with diploid DNA) can escape the aging process. Many types of cell lines become immortal – they become cancerous. The only generally recognized difference in the many different kinds of cancer cells and their parents is that the cancer cell lines do not age. Somatic cell lines which can age and then can be converted to immortal lines strongly suggest that there is something mechanically different between the DNA dividing processes of non-cancerous and cancerous cells.
With this background the author began searching for mechanical differences in the DNA from one generation to the next. First it was speculated that during division of the long string of DNA might get knotted—up in some manner during division. Each subsequent division would somehow produce an additional knot in the daughter strands of DNA. These knots presumably would interfere with transcription producing errors in the transcribing RNA, see Page 186 of Brown . Later research proved that DNA did not behave in this manner. In this knotting theory of aging, the DNA strand was thought of as a flimsy string. Later we realized that DNA is a stiff torsion box.
A major improvement in the understanding of the mechanical properties of DNA is provided by the book Understanding DNA by Chris R. Calladine, et al, . As a result of the information in this book, it became clear what stresses and strains were induced in DNA during separation of the two strands and the construction of the two new strands. Based on this work of Calladine, et al, we determined that at each division, an increment of torsional strain is induced into both pairs of daughter strands. Thus, we had definite proof that the daughter strands of DNA differed from the mother strand. This analysis is presented in Brown .
We do not know how this change of torsional strain from one generation to the next affects differentiation of normal somatic cells. We certainly believe that early cell changes are due to environmental differences but we strongly suspect that the differentiation occurring in the late generations is due to changes in the double stranded DNA. Further, we strongly suspect these changes are not of a chemical nature.
This torsional strain theory of aging is consistent with the fact that germ cells do not age since they are single strands and not interwound. For somatic cells to be consistent with the occurrence of cancer, there must be a mechanism for relieving the torsional strain to produce cancerous cells.
The torsional strain is maintained by one strand of the double helix being wound in one direction while its complementary strand is wound in the opposite direction. Now, the strain cannot be relieved by twisting the double strand somewhere along its length since external torques on the two strands would increase the strain in one strand and decrease that in the other strand.
What mankind would like regarding torsional strain in human DNA follows:
In effect, what we would like is to be able to do is control the amount of torsional strain in most cells of the human body throughout the lifetime of the individual. So doing possibly would cure cancer and aging.
Achieving torsion control is a tall order. World-wide efforts on cancer research and treatment currently are stupendous, and all the work is involved in controlling the proliferation, usually, of just one cell type in a human. However, if our thesis is correct that all cancers (and aging) just involve releasing (and increasing) torsional strain, this understanding might significantly reduce the effort to control cancer. To control cancer the affected cells would have to be identified and killed, which we currently are doing. To cure aging the majority of cells in the body would have to be stress relieved to some extent. We know nature does this with cancer. Thus, discovering the molecules and pathways nature has devised would give the guidelines for curing aging.
Actually, the cause of cancer and the cure for aging may be much easier than it would first appear. Cancer is caused by a mutation in one gene. As a result of this mutation an immortal cell is produced. Since a daughter cell requires proteins produced by many different genes, the one gene cause implies that the mutation produced a modified proton in the nuclear membrane. Such a modification could produce a nuclear membrane which would release the torsion build-up in each segment of DNA extending from one DNA-membrane connection to the next DNA-membrane connection. This release would be for every chromosome in the affected cell. Since between divisions many genes are continually activated there could be a continuous release of the torsion – each time a gene is activated, some of the torsional strain would be relieved.
Incidentally, for some cancerous cells, it has been noted that cancer is more prevalent in cells which are not strongly connected to other cells. This is consistent with the concept that a faulty DNA-nuclear membrane is the root-cause of cancer. The defect in the DNA-nuclear membrane connection would have to permit one of the two DNA strands to rotate in one direction and the other strand in the opposite direction.
To obtain a cure for cancer, our approach has been to kill the affected cell. To cure aging we would have to release the torsion in cells. Nature has a method for releasing the torsion, according to our aging/cancer theory, a controlled amount. For example, a 50 year old patient would need half his cell torsional strain released, and no more. The hope would then be that the patient would return to his/her physiology at age 25.
Ultimately, to cure aging, a drug (or drugs) would have to be developed which would modify the gene(s) that produce the membrane in such a way that the torsional strain would be released by a controlled amount. A further complication is that different cell types in an organism might have different genes involved in producing the nuclear membrane.
Achieving the capability to reverse aging, even if all the above theory is absolutely true, would take a lot of time and a lot of effort. Biological researchers should begin evaluating this theory and proceed as warranted by the results of their investigations.
The Higgs particle supposedly is the particle from which everything is made. According to the kinetic particle theory of physics, see Foundations of Physics by Brown , everything is made of brutinos which are the constituents of a gas of elastic particles making up the ether. Thus we ask the question, could the Higgs field be a kinetic particle gas which is spread somewhat uniformly over the universe? Could there be pockets of this gas which are the Higgs particle?
The density of the kinetic particle gas is 4×1017 kg/m2. The gas is made up of a particle whose diameter is 10-34 m (2 times the Planck length), whose mass is 10-66 kg, and whose rms speed is 3.9×109 m/s. Thus, the energy per cubic meter is
E= ρv2 = 4×1017 (3.9×109)2 = 6.1×1036 joules/m3
The energy for a 10-15 m particle with this same energy density is
Fh = [π(10-15)3/6](6.1×1036) = 3.19×10-9 joules
The energy of a proton is
Ep = (1.67×1027)(3×108)2 = 1.50×10-10 joules
Thus, we see that the energy in a volume with a linear dimension ten times that of the proton has 20 times the energy of a proton. That quantity of the kinetic particle ether could easily be sufficient to produce a proton.
However, there is a significant difference in the kinetic particle ether and the Higgs field. The Higgs field is massless – it is just energy in the sense that the mass given up by an atom (of matter) turns into energy (of the photon). The kinetic particle field is mass in motion (which is energy).
The gluons, which correspond to the Yukawa particles which many physicists believe produce the strong nuclear force, could be made from the Higgs field or they could be made from the kinetic particle ether. However, in the kinetic particle theory of physics, the strong nuclear force is produced by the steady flow between two (fluid-mechanic) doublets which are the two protons (one of each making a nucleon). Thus, the strong nuclear force is the result of a steady flow of the background gas in the kinetic particle theory of physics; see pages 7-8 of the Journal of the Mississippi Academy of Sciences ,Vol. XXVIII.  and pages 66-72 of .
The steady flow in the circular paths of the proton material produces a wake which would appear to be an oscillating flow field that might be the Yukawa mesons or the gluons.
A strong case is made by Brown, on Pages 94-101 of  and on Pages 1-2 of , for a photon to consist of many small particles of mass.
In conclusion it appears likely that the Higgs field corresponds to the Brutino gas and that the Higgs particle, as well as the energy-only particles, are actually pockets of flow of the kinetic particle ether.
1. Brown, Joseph M., Foundations of Physics. ISBN: 978-0-9883180-0-7, Basic Research Press, Starkville, MS, 2012.
2. Brown, J.M., Journal of the Mississippi Academy of Sciences, Vol. XXVIII, 1972. Available from Basic Research Press.
3. Brown, Joseph M., Photons and the Elementary Particles. ISBN: 978-0-9712944-5-5, Basic Research Press, Starkville, MS, 2011.
The Fine Structure Constant
The structure constant is a measure of the interaction velocity of electrostatic charged particles. In the kinetic particle theory of physics by Brown  it is postulated that the universe is populated by a gas of Newtonian particles. The speeds of the particles have a Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution whose mean speed is vm and whose rms speed is vr (and vr=vm). It was noted that [(vr – vm)/vm]2=1/137, close to the value of the fine structure constant, see .
The most fundamental inhomogeneous assembly of the gaseous particles is a sub-mean-free-path sized condensation of the gaseous particles. The condensation flow rate is so slow that the final flow is free-molecular-flow and, of course, is supersonic. The flow coming in to the neutrino (and producing the neutrino) is near spherically symmetric and becomes near solid, and the particles get completely aligned and flows out very small areas at the front and back of the neutrino. The aft flowing particles flow at velocity vm, which is the mean speed of the background gas particles. The forward flowing particle velocity is the background rms speed vr, which is 8% higher than the aft flowing velocity. This higher forward velocity results since the background particles come into this central region without changing their speeds (as well as the distribution of speeds). The forward end of the neutrino takes the distributed speed particles and forces them to flow at one speed without changing their energy. This results in a flow speed of vr versus the aft flow speed of vm, which propels the neutrino at velocity vr – vm . The axial forces generated by the particles coming in the aft half of the neutrino and scattering out the aft exit at velocity vm and that generated by the particles coming in the forward half and scattering out the front are extremely large (million Newtons). But since the forward scattering front is advancing at velocity vr – vm the impacting force does work.
The force is large enough so that a neutrino in a circular path at velocity vr – vm (=c) can balance its centrifugal force. The proton is made up of such a circulating neutrino whose mass is the proton mass and, when circulating, has the same angular momentum which the neutrino had when it was translating.
As a result of the neutrino orbiting it establishes a near spherically symmetric pulsing field with two components – one with velocity amplitude vr and the other at amplitude vm. The fields establish resonances at radial separation distances proportional to vm /( vr – vm) – or, the probability of finding a resonance is (vr – vm)/ vm.
In the interaction of two electrostatic fields the probability of finding a join resonance is [(vr – vm)/ vm] [(vr – vm)/ vm]= [(vr – vm)/ vm]2=( – 1)2=1/137. Due to the closeness of the expression [(vr – vm)/ vm]2 to the fine structure constant α it is likely that the kinetic particle of Maxwell-Boltzmann gas may be at the root of quantum electrodynamics.